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The Mineral Export Ban Natural Resource Management Forte?

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Heru Pamungkas, Rangga D. Fadillah and Aditya Rakhman

JAKARTA. In early 2014, the Indonesian government released an energy and mineral resources ministerial regulation that required holders of commercial mining permits (IUP) and special mining licenses (IUPK) in metal production to conduct a minimum amount of their processing and refining within the borders of Indonesia. This move triggered an outer), especially from extractive industries.

It was reported last week that PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara (NNT) has filed a lawsuit against the government with the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (arbitration) in response to the emergence of the regulation.

NNT has stated that the regulation, which came into force on Jan. 12, 2014, has caused its mining site in Batu Hijau to cease operations, inevitably inflicting economic damage on NNT employees, contractors and other stakeholders. NNT in its submission stated that the regulation was not aligned with the contract of work and bilateral investment agreement between Indonesia and the Netherlands (NNTs major shareholder is an entity based on Dutch laws).

In spite of harsh reactions from the extractive industry, the underlying question remains.

At the very core of its systemic design and the implications that it brings, is this regulatory approach strategic in approaching a -better resource management system?

One can argue that the policy brings more harm than good or vice versa, but what one cannot deny is that this approach provides the country with "better", although far from perfect, regulatory architecture to help the government in managing its mineral resources. Poor management of natural resources, particularly minerals, has inflicted tremendous economic loss in the form of opportunity cost that is too apparent to ignore any longer.

Earlier this year, the Finance Ministry’s tax director general, Fuad Rahmany, revealed that the country lost approximately Rp 14.7 trillion (US$1.26 billion) per year due to illegal exports of minerals.

There are around 1,000 illegal seaports operating across the archipelago that facilitate these activities, including in Kalimantan, one of the country’s richest natural resource producers.

The seaports in question lack the necessary supervising and security details from officers and officials, so the ports can easily be used by delinquent miners to export mineral ores without paying taxes to the government.

If regulatory frameworks can be prescribed that make life slightly harder for the illegal exporters, the government will be able to tap into the lost economic benefit. This is where the export ban (together with more rigid licensing requirements) may serve that purpose.

With the export ban, mining companies are obliged to process their raw minerals up to a certain degree of purity inside the boundaries of the country. It is essential to note that this does not imply that all mining companies should build their own processing facilities or smelters; alternatively, they can process their mineral ores through smelting companies or at other mining companies’ smelters.

But things are never that simple; new smelters will not be ready until as early as 2017. A major cause of the current turbulence has been the government’s indecisiveness in implementing the 2009 law on minerals and coal over the past few years.

Thus, companies are still allowed to export ores but must pay some amount of duties, implemented as disincentives.

The situation has raised concern that the high cost of operating businesses in Indonesia will further reduce investors trust in Indonesia’s investment climate in the mining sector.

However, this is only a temporary effect. When the smelters are ready and the government continues to facilitate the business through regulatory frameworks with certainty and decisiveness in the coming two or three years, the benefits of this policy will outweigh any discounts on Indonesia’s investment climate initially.

And therefore, despite the challenges, this policy is worth fighting for. In light of achieving the desired effects laid out above, the ball is now in the government’s court, because the authority to manage natural resources is ultimately in the hands of the government, as mandated in the Constitution.

To that end, the government enacted the 2009 Law on Mineral and Coal Mining, which aims to manage mining activities that may well be a key contributor to the economic development of the country.

Government Regulation (PP) No. 23 of 2010, which was amended by PP No. 1 of 2014 as well Ministerial Regulation (Permen) No. 1 of 2014, obliges mining companies to revise their contract of works and Working Agreements (Perjanjian Karya), which consequently requires the companies to refine mineral ores within Indonesia at the latest by five years after the issuance of the regulation.

As a consequence of the regulations, mining companies need to ensure the availability of smelters to refine mineral ores that can be built by the mining companies themselves and/or other mining companies. The system requires mining companies to submit and apply for business licenses from the government.

The companies, however, should satisfy all of the conditions as set out in the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry’s Regulation No. 32 of 2013 before obtaining a refining license that, among other things, includes providing a Memorandum of Understanding on Sale and Purchase Material made between the IUP holder and the company, as well as providing proof of the validity of the IUP.

As part of the architecture, the regulatory framework allows the government to have expanded management.

As laid out early in the article, the cost of not having a proper framework to regulate natural resource management for this bustling archipelago is astronomical.

This situation can be reversed, and the governments steps in early 2014 need to be supported.

If today it can tackle illegal mining, perhaps tomorrow it can raise Indonesias bargaining position in negotiations.

The prospects are excitingly promising.

Heni Pamungkas is a litigation attorney at Assegaf, Hamzah Partners (AHP), Rangga D. Fadillah is an analyst at BowerGroupAsia and Aditya Rakhman is a consultant at the REDD Agency Indonesia.

 Source : The Jakarta Post, July 18, 2014

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Jumat, 18 Juli 2014 09:13 )

Several Mining Contracts Left In Limbo

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Raras Cahyafitri and Ina Parlina

JAKARTA. The prolonged renegotiations between the government and several major mining companies has consumed so much time that similar talks with smaller miners has been progressing very slowly.

The government announced last week that the renegotiation with PT Freeport Indonesia, a subsidiary of US-based Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold, had been completed.

However, the contract still n6eds further discussion within the Cabinet, the schedule for which has not yet been set.

On Thursday, Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Jero Wacik said a Cabinet meeting would likely be held only after July 22, when the official results of the presidential election are due to be announced by the General Elections Commission (KPU).

Aside from the lengthy discussions with Freeport, the renegotiation with PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara is in limbo, due primarily to the fact that the subsidiary of the US-based Newmont Mining Corporation filed an arbitration appeal against Indonesia’s mineral ore export ban as well as the mineral export tax.

Coordinating Economic Minister Chairul Tanjung has called on Newmont to withdraw the lawsuit or face harsh consequences. He said the renegotiation of Newmont’s mining contract would only be resumed if the company withdrew its legal appeal.

"I heard that Newmont is holding a meeting today [Thursday]. It has not withdrawn the appeal. We don’t want the company to only buy time. I have reported this to the President [Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono] and his direction is clear; that we will prepare moves related to Newmont’s suit," Chairul told reporters after a meeting at the State Palace.

Meanwhile, the Energy and Mineral Resources director general for minerals and coal, R. Sukhyar, said if Newmont refused to withdraw the arbitration appeal, the company may face serious consequences, the worst of which would be the termination of its contract.

Newmont recently declared a force majeure at its Batu Hijau copper mine in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) and halted production.

Sukhyar said his office planned to send a letter to Newmont to remind the company that by stopping production, it had defaulted on its contract.

According to prevailing regulations, after the termination of a contract, the government declares the mining area in question as belonging to the state. It is then offered to a state-owned company to manage. If the state-owned company refuses to take over, the site is handed over to companies owned by a local administration or to private entities.

The governments focus on completing the renegotiations with Freeport and Newmont has led to talks with other mining companies in limbo. For instance, PT Agincourt Resources, which holds a contract for a gold mine in South Tapanuli, North Sumatra, said that in April the company requested the government to talk and settle six issues for renegotiation.

"However, we haven’t received a response yet," Agincourt director Linda Siahaan said late Wednesday.

Sukhyar played down the concerns. He said renegotiations with all miners, including Agincourt, were continuing.

"They are ongoing. As for Agincourt, we only need to summon them again," Sukhyar said.

The government aims to complete all renegotiations with contract of work (CoW) holders by this September, a month before the new government takes office. The issues covered in renegotiations are adjustments to the size of mining areas, state income, divestments, the obligation regarding domestic processing, the continuity of operations as well as the use of local goods and services.

All renegotiations, which are mandated under the 2009 Mining Law, should have been completed one year after the law was passed.

 Source : The Jakarta Post, July 18, 2014

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Jumat, 18 Juli 2014 09:11 )

Bisnis Alat Berat Terkena Dampak Kenaikan Tarif Royalti

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JAKARTA. Jika pemerintah tetap menaikkan tarif royalti batubara, dipastikan banyak yang akan terdampak dari rencana tersebut Selain produsen batubara kecil yang diperkirakan banyak yang akan gulung tikar, rencana tersebut juga berdampak pada bisnis perusahaan yang menjual alat-alat berat serta perusahaan pembiayaan alat-alat berat yang cenderung melemah.

Sektor pertambangan yang selama ini menjadi bisnis primadona terlihat melemah sejak 2013 yang terus berlanjut hingga pertengahan tahun 2014. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah harga batubara yang belum kunjung membaik dan. beberapa kebijakan di sektor pertambangan juga turut membuat sektor ini kehilangan gairah. Salah satunya regulasi hilirisasi mineral yang melarangan ekspor barang mineral yang diimplementasikan pada awal 2014.

Kinerja kurang menarik dari industri pertambangan ini tentu saja berimbas pada penjualan alat berat. Kondisi ini semakin diperparah jika pemerintah menaikkan tarif royalti batubara. “Meski tidak secara langsung kondisi tersebut berimbas pada penjualan alat berat yang mengalami tekanan khusus di sektor pertambangan pada tahun ini,” ujar Corporate Secretary United Tractors Sara K Loebis di Jakarta pada Selasa (15/7).

Sara mengakui bahwa dirinya belum memiliki data konkret mengenai dampak dari rencana penaikan tarif royalti batubara. Pasalnya, semua tergantung dari rencana produksi dari produsen batubara. Bagi kami yang menjual alat-alat berat dampak tersebut terasa tidak secara langsung. Yang pasti, kondisi saat ini, kami hanya mengganti alat-alat berat yang sudah usang,” ujarnya.

Sebelumnya, pemerintah tetap mengusung rencana kenaikan tarif royalti batubara, setelah sempat menunda rencana ini beberapa waktu lalu. Saat ini, rumusan rencana tersebut tengah dituntaskan di Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) dan akan segera disampaikan ke Menteri Koordinator Perekonomian.

Rumusan Kementerian ESDM menyepakati untuk mengerek besaran tarif royalti secara progresif ketika harga batubara acuan (HBA) menembus US$ 80 per ton akan dikenakan pungutan windfall (keuntungan).

Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) Nomor 9/2012 tentang Penerimaan Negara Non-Pajak di Kementerian ESDM menetapkan beberapa tarif royalti batubara. Tarif royalti batubara untuk izin usaha pertambangan (IUP) berkalori rendah atawa di bawah 5.100 kilo kalori per kilogram (kkalAg) sebesar 3% dari harga jual. Tarif royalti batubara kualitas sedang kadar 5.100 kkal/kg hingga 6.100 kkal/kg sebesar 5% dari harga jual.

Sedangkan tarif royalti batubara kualitas tinggi atau di atas 6.100 kkal/kg mencapai 7% dari harga jual. Sementara, tarif royalti plus pengembangan batubara pemegang perjanjian karya pengusahaan pertambangan batubara (PKP2B) dipungut rata 13,5% dari harga jual.

Dengan kondisi seperti itu, lanjut Sara, tahun ini United Tractors telah mengalihkan fokus penjualan ke sektor di luar mining, yakni konstruksi, perkebunan dan kehutanan. Pengalihan ini tak lepas dari kondisi tahun 2013 lalu dimana United Tractors hanya menjual 4.200 unit alat-alat berat

Karena itu, kata Sara tahun ini tidak ada target pertumbuhan penjualan alat-alat berat di sektor mining. Sedangkan untuk sektor di konstruksi, perkebunan, dan kehutanan ditargetkan akan mengalami kenaikan masingmasing sebesar 5%.

Dari penjelasan Sara di atas menunjukkan bahwa kinerja sektor pertambangan yang melemah ini sangat dirasakan oleh pada penjualan alat berat. Kondisi ini, tentu akan berimbas pula pada bisnis pembiayaan alat berat. Tahun lalu, data Asosiasi Perusahaan Pembiayaan Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa bisnis pembiayaan alat berat turun hingga 35%. Sedangkan tahun ini, banyak yang memprediksi akan ada penurunan yang cukup besar, meski ada harapan pertumbuhan di kisaran 30-35%.

Di sisi lain, data asosiasi juga memperlihatkan bahwa sejak 2011 hingga saat ini pembiayaan alat berat untuk sektor pertambangan masih dominan. Bahkan pada 2011 dan 2013 menguasai lebih dari 50% pembiayaan alat berat. Namun, seiring meredupnya sektor pertambangan sejak 2013, dominasi tersebut mulai turun meski tidak signifikan. Pasalnya, kue di sektor lain belum mampu menggantikan pendapatan di sektor pertambangan.

Kondisi ini membuat masing-masing perusahaan pembiayaan telah menyiapkan strategi khusus. Ada yang masih tetap konsisten dengan syarat konsumen mempunyai alternatif ke sektor lain. Atau tetap membiayai alat berat di sektor pertambangan tetapi dengan hitungan resiko yang terukur. (es)

 Sumber : Investor Daily, 17 Juli 2014

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Jumat, 18 Juli 2014 09:07 )

Bea Keluar Minerba Pengaruhi Penerimaan DJBC

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JAKARTA. Peraturan soal bea keluar mineral dan batubara (minerba) memengaruhi realisasi penerimaan Direktoral Jenderal Bea dan Cukai, karena hingga 30 Juni 2013, tidak ada penerimaan bea keluar dari sektor tersebut.

"Kelemahan utamanya ada di Bea Keluar mineral dan batu bara. Karena harus digabung dengan smelter dan sebagainya. Sehingga, sampai detik ini izin ekspor belum ada untuk mineral," ujar Direktur Jenderal Bea Cukai Kemenkeu Agung Kuswandono di Jakarta, Rabu (16/7).

Agung mengatakan, penerimaan Bea Keluar sampai 30 Juni 2014 sebesar Rp6,87 triliun atau sebesar 33,32 persen dari target tahunan bea keluar 2014.

"Dibandingkan dengan capaian periode yang sama pada 2013, lanjut Agung, terjadi penurunan sebesar 0,85 persen atau Rp59 miliar. Namun, pada enam bulan pertama 2014, bea keluar mineral hanya berkontribusi sebesar Rp350 miliar," kata Agung seperti dikutip Antara.

Undang-Undang Nomor 4/2009 tentang Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara melarang ekspor bijih mineral mulai 12 Januari 2014 Agung menambahkan, ekspor mineral pada 1-11 Januari 2014 menyumbang penerimaan sebesar Rp282,8 miliar, sedangkan ekspor bijih mineral menyumbang penerimaan bea keluar sebesar Rp5,53 triliun pada 2013.

Sehingga, lanjutnya, sejak 12 Januari-30 Juni 2014 belum ada realisasi ekspor dari perusahaan tambang besar yakni PT Freeport Indonesia dan PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara.

"Mereka sudah memperoleh rekomendasi ekspor konsentrat tembaga dari Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) tapi belum memperoleh Surat Persetujuan Ekspor (SPE) dari Kementerian Perdagangan," kata Agung.

Sementara itu, total realisasi penerimaan kepabeanan dan cukai yang meliputi bea masuk, bea keluar dan cukai mencapai 46,23 persen atau sebesar Rp80,31 triliun dari target tahunan APBN Perubahan 2014 sebesar Rp 173,73 triliun.

Pencapaian yang paling tinggi yakni dari penerimaan cukai yang realisasinya mencapai Rp 57,62 triliun, sedangkan realisasi penerimaan bea masuk dan bea cukai masih berada di bawah target.

"Untuk realisasi penerimaan bea masuk hanya sebesar Rp 15,83 triliun dan bea keluar jauh lebih rendah lagi, yaitu hanya Rp 6,87 triliun," ujar Agung. (ks)

 Sumber : Investor Daily, 17 Juli 2014

Terakhir Diperbaharui ( Jumat, 18 Juli 2014 09:05 )